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翻译留学五部 - 2012/5/24 14:50:00
翻译学院名师指点:初级笔译定语从句的翻译技巧


    语从句是由一些关系代词或者关系副词引导的从句组成,用来修饰名词中心词。

  定语从句的翻译可分为限制性和非限制性定语从句两种,翻译成汉语时不论是在语序方面还是重复先行词方面都有一定的讲究:
  限制性定语从句的翻译可分为以下几方面:
1.前置:
  这种定语从句一般比较短,翻译起来比较方便,和汉语的词序完全一样,例如:
  This is the finest weather that I have ever seen this month.
  这是这个月我所看到的最好的天气。
  Our two countries are neighbors whose friendship is of long standing.
  我们两国是友谊长存的友好邻邦。
  Teachers generally like the students who achieve high scores in tests.
  老师通常喜欢考试中成绩好的学生。
  以上的这些例子告诉我们,如果定语很短的话,我们可以把他像汉语一样放在中心词的前面。但是,有的时候,如果定语太长,读起来就不符和汉语的习惯,因此,往往要后置,重复先行词,这就是下面要提到的定语从句的 “后置” 问题。
2.后置:
  Misers are often lonely and obscure men whose wealth is revealed only after their death.
  吝啬鬼经常是看起来年很孤单、不为人所主意,可他们的财富只有等到他们死了以后才 暴露出来。

3.“综合性”的翻译法:
  综合性”的翻译就是,翻译时不需要关系词,其中的关系完全靠上下文的意思来表现出来,例如:
  There is a big oak tree that stands just in front of the village.村子前面有棵大象树
  Most of our patients welcomed another human being with whom they could talk openly, honestly, and frankly about their trouble.

大多数病人想找人坦率、诚实地倾诉他们的苦衷。
  非限制性定语从句的翻译可分为以下几方面:
1.前置:
  The worldly well-known actor , who had been ill for two years, meet thunderstorm applause when reappeared on the stage.

那个病了很多年的著名演员,一上台观众就报以雷鸣般的掌声。
2.后置:
  He deposits a little sum of money in the bank, by which means he hopes to deal with any potential emergency easily.

我们每个月都在银行里存一些钱,这样,碰到有任何危机时,我们就可以应付了。
Living in the central Australian desert has its problems, of which obtaining water is not the

least.生活在澳大利亚中部有很多问题,其中取水还不算最艰苦的。

3.省略先行词
这种句行就象前面讲的“综和性”翻译一样,直接把整个句子的意思讲出来,例如:
The two universities signed an agreement, under which they would exchange students and

scholars. 

这两个大学,签定了协议,决定交换学生和学者。

He passed the exam, which can be read from his the light on his face.
我从他脸上就可以看出他已通过了考试。

4.译成状语从句
  有些作定语的句子听起来却有点象状语从句,因此翻译时可以将其译成状语似的从句:
  You should take advantage of the opportunity to learn English well, which is very valuable。

你应该利用这个机会好好学习英语,这太重要了。
5. “as”引导的句子:
  除了以上这些例子以外,还有一些特殊的由 “as”引导的句子, 翻译时可参考“as”的比 较结构从句:
  He is not such as fool as he looks他并不象看上去的那么傻。

They were not such questions as could easily be disposed of.

这些问题可不是那么容易就能处理好的。
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